Electricity refers to the flow of charged particles through wires or cables. It provides energy that keeps a lamp lit or moves frog legs after they have been shocked, among many other uses.

Electric energy is measured in units called watts, named for Scottish inventor James Watt. Each watt equals one joule of electrical energy.


Electric charge is an essential property of matter and carried by elementary particles known as electrons, which possess negative charges and are the most stable subatomic particles.

Electrons serve as primary carriers of current in matter by moving in an opposite direction from that of positive-charged protons (i.e. they flow from negative to positive charge). Electrons also give rise to and interact with electromagnetic force – one of four fundamental forces in nature.

Electrons can be found in all atoms of matter and form chemical bonds with other atoms to form molecules. When electrons are allowed to roam freely, they create electric fields around themselves that attract or repel other charged objects like protons and ions – these fields also cause materials to conduct electricity.

When an atom’s nucleus is surrounded by electrons, they are believed to orbit around in shells similar to Earth’s atmosphere and contain different probabilities of electrons; since an electron has a negative charge it tends to repel positively-charged protons and neutrons.

Before electricity became widely available, people relied on candles or whale oil lamps for lighting and iceboxes to store food cold. In the 19th century, major advances were made by Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla who all made significant advances in electrical technology.

Nowadays we take it for granted but can hardly imagine life without electricity-it powers everything from light bulbs and electric motors to televisions and computers; most electricity production comes from generators which act like large rotating magnetic apparatuses that send electrons flowing through wires coiling around them.



Conductors are materials that transport heat, electricity and light through them. Electric conductors contain electric charges (usually electrons) which move freely when applied with voltage, creating an electric current. You can visit bestestrøm.no/hva-er-strøm/ to learn more. Insulators, on the other hand, do not conduct electric charge at all.

Copper and silver metals, as well as most other metals, are excellent conductors of electricity, making wires composed of these metals reliable conductors of electricity. This is possible because their atoms possess loosely bound electrons which allow many electrons to freely roam about. It is this property of metals that makes them such efficient conductors of electricity.

All matter on Earth is composed of tiny particles called atoms. These atoms have both positive and negative charges; positive charges are known as cations while negative ones are known as anions.

Connecting a conductor to a power source, like a battery, causes it to gain an electric charge, which in turn causes electrons in its interior to begin drifting towards the negative end of the battery and colliding with other electrons there; when this happens they produce heat; this process gives us electricity.

Electric current can then flow throughout a battery, creating more heat and electrons which in turn generate even more heat until eventually all its capacity has been used up and it must be recharged to produce energy for use elsewhere, such as running lights or machines or heating water for instance. The energy produced then serves to perform work such as powering devices like lamps and machines or warming water for instance.



Insulators are materials that do not easily allow heat or electricity to pass through them, and are commonly used in electrical wiring to protect users from unintended current flows and electrical shock. Insulators feature high electrical resistance and low thermal conductivity – perfect for isolating components and circuits – while their dielectric strength allows them to tolerate higher voltages.

Electronic Band Theory holds that electric charge flows when quantum states of matter exist in which electrons can be excited; otherwise, materials act as insulators – even pure substances like glass, air and water are considered insulators; when temperatures increase though, these materials become conductors as their constituent atoms and molecules receive more energy from heat than before.

Wood, paper and rubber are natural insulators; plastic insulators such as PVC and PTFE are popular choices; porcelain and ceramic insulators are also often employed on overhead power lines for transmission lines due to their non-attractivity of condensation, superior mechanical strength and ability to reduce current flow to prevent sparks (corona). You can visit this site to learn more about insulation properties.

Insulators used on overhead power lines usually consist of porcelain insulators or composite polymer materials with ridged designs to cut current flow for transmission lines with no risk of sparking and arcing (corona).

At very high voltages insulators may be enclosed by rings of aluminum to reduce electrostatic charge on them (known as corona), with their height determined by how high maximum voltage can go.



Current is the movement of electric charge from one point to another; its direction will depend on the kind of charge involved, though generally speaking current flows from an area with relatively positive charges to areas with relatively negative charges.

Current of electrons flowing in metal wires generates magnetic fields around them and their end terminals, causing magnetic fields to form that cause electrons to drift from negative end toward positive end and vice versa.

Physicists define electric current as the amount of charge carriers passing a point in one second (6.2×1018); its SI unit of measurement is ampere (A). One ampere represents flow of one coulomb of electrons per centimetre per second of wire in one second. You can click the link: https://www.npl.co.uk/si-units/ampere to learn more.

Electricity is an indispensable component of modern technology, whether used for power generation utilizing fossil fuels or communications using optical fibres and satellites. We all rely on electricity to power our homes and businesses – yet one-third of humanity lived without access until recently!

Static electricity exists when opposite charges accumulate on objects separated by insulators, and their motion causes the air between them to become electrified, creating an electric field. Static electricity poses a serious risk to electronic components; its presence can damage them.

To mitigate its harmful effects, effective circuit designs use both insulators and conductors that intertwine seamlessly without interruption by any gaps – in most instances this would mean connecting end-to-end metal wires for example – though most devices rely on more complex circuitry than this.



Power refers to the rate at which energy is consumed or converted per unit of time, measured in watts which equal one joule per second. Watts is often measured against other measures of consumption or conversion such as horsepower (hp), which refers to mechanical power from horses; kilowatt hours (kwh), which measures electricity use within homes; or calories consumed per hour (calories).

Electricity needs a material with loose electrons that can be knocked about easily in order to maintain current flow. Such conductors include most metals as well as plastic that covers many wires.

Electricity relies on electrons moving continuously from one part of a wire to the next, so in order for it to flow it requires an uninterrupted supply of electrons; that’s why we must work to create enough capacity in energy production so as to meet demand.

Historically, almost all the world’s electricity was generated at hydropower plants or coal and nuclear stations before reaching homes and offices. Now however, we are witnessing an upsurge in renewables; from wind farms atop windy mountains to solar panels installed on roofs nationwide – we are finding innovative ways to tap nature for energy purposes.

Electricity consumption fluctuates throughout the year depending on weather and time of day, and we require sufficient production, transmission, and distribution capacity to meet peak demands at these times. Even on sunny days there must be sufficient reserves of electricity ready to respond quickly to sudden spikes in energy demand; that is where storage comes in handy.